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food allergy statistics

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More Adults Have Food Allergies Than Previously Believed

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Last month, we shared the latest research on food allergy trends among children. The study found that approximately 7.6%—or 6 million—kids in the U.S. have a food allergy. Now we have more breaking food allergy news to share—this time concerning adults.

In early January, The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published a study on the prevalence of food allergies among U.S. adults. What did they discover? Approximately 1 in 10 American adults (~26 million) have a food allergy. 

This brings the total number of Americans with a food allergy to approximately 32 million, more than doubling the food allergy population! Previous estimates had the population at roughly 15 million Americans.

Below are a few more key findings:

  • Adult onset of food allergies is becoming more common; nearly half of food-allergic adults have at least one food allergy that began in adulthood.

  • The most common allergies among adults are shellfish (7.2 million), milk (4.7 million), peanuts (4.5 million), tree nuts (3 million), and fin fish (2.2 million).

  • Food allergies occur more often in non-white adults than in white adults.

  • Nearly 40% of adults with a food allergy reported at least one food allergy-related ER visit in their lifetime.

  • Adults ages 30-39 had higher rates of food allergy than younger adults. Adults over 60 had lower rates than other adult age groups.

Dr. Ruchi Gupta and her team at Northwestern University conducted both the adult and pediatric studies. Consistent with their research on children, Dr. Gupta’s team applied a stringent symptom methodology, which looked at the frequency, type, and severity of allergy symptoms as part of diagnosis to filter out those who more likely had a food intolerance. 

One thing is clear: food allergies are on the rise, and we need greater education, awareness, and research on this troubling health trend. 

A big thanks to Dr. Gupta and her team for their ongoing efforts to shine a light on the rising food allergy epidemic in our country.

- Susannah and the Allergy Amulet Team

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Emerging Epidemic: Latest Research on Childhood Food Allergies Shows Troubling Trend

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We like to follow research in the food allergy world closely—after all, many of our team members are as personally vested as we are professionally in the advancement of food allergy research! Several of our senior team members either have food allergies or have children with food allergies. 

Last month at FABlogCon, we learned that Dr. Ruchi Gupta and her team at Northwestern University were soon releasing a new study in PediatricsThe Public Health Impact of Parent-Reported Childhood Food Allergies in the United States.

The study was published this month, and we wanted to share some key findings with you: 

  • Food allergies continue to affect a significant number of children in the United States—7.6 percent, or nearly 6 million kids, have a food allergy. Of those, 40 percent report having multiple food allergies.

  • Food allergies have a meaningful impact on families—42 percent reported a severe allergic reaction to their food allergen, and nearly 1 in 5 reported that their child had visited the emergency department for a food-allergic reaction in the past year!

  • Not everyone has emergency medicines at the ready—less than half of parents reported that their child has a current prescription for an epinephrine auto-injector, the only treatment for anaphylaxis. 

This study is a continuation of the work carried out by Dr. Gupta and her team in 2011. Their objective was to better assess the public health impact on childhood food allergies. They surveyed over 40,000 households using advanced statistical modeling to ensure they captured a representative sample of children in the United States. 

One noteworthy feature of this study was a “stringent symptom” methodology, which looked at the frequency, type, and severity of allergy symptoms as part of a diagnosis. This approach helped filter out those who did not likely have a food allergy, as several parents reported a food allergy when the symptoms were more characteristic of a food intolerance or oral allergy syndrome (OAS).

Even after applying the stricter criteria, food allergies are still a significant problem for American children. Today, 1 in 13 kids has a food allergy, which translates to 2 in every classroom. Peanut (2.2%) and milk (1.9%) are the most commonly reported food allergies, affecting 1.6 million and 1.4 million children, respectively. African American children are also more likely to have a food allergy than non-Hispanic white children and are more likely than other children to have multiple food allergies. 

Dr. Gupta (second from the left on the bottom row) and her SOAAR research team (Science and Outcomes of Allergy and Asthma Research) at Northwestern University.

Dr. Gupta (second from the left on the bottom row) and her SOAAR research team (Science and Outcomes of Allergy and Asthma Research) at Northwestern University.

We appreciate the work of Dr. Gupta and her team to increase awareness of the public health implications of food allergies. To quote from the study: “With the growing epidemic and life-threatening nature of food allergies, developing treatments and prevention strategies are critical.” 

We couldn’t agree more!

- Susannah & the Allergy Amulet Team 


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Everything’s Coming Up… Rotten

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Something in our world is changing. Our bodies are rejecting the food we eat. Even the experts don’t really know why.

In January, Netflix debuted an original six-part documentary series titled Rotten. The series travels deep into the heart of the food supply chain to reveal more than a few unsavory truths about what we eat. Of particular interest to the Allergy Amulet team was the second part of the series: The Peanut Problem.

This episode surveys experts across different fields to understand why the US has witnessed a surge in food allergies in recent decades—more specifically, to peanuts.

According to Dr. Ruchi Gupta of Lurie Children’s Hospital, one in four kids with a food allergy is allergic to peanuts, and more than half of those kids have experienced a life-threatening allergic reaction. 

The problem has become so widespread, in fact, that the peanut industry is beginning to take action. Peanut farmers have started pouring millions of dollars into food allergy research to help address the problem. To date, the National Peanut Board has donated approximately $22M to food allergy research. One company is even developing an allergy-free peanut, which could be on the market as early as next year. 

Peanuts are in trouble. In only a few years they have seen their reputation transform.

The Rotten series artfully underscores the risks that dining out presents. Responsible for nearly half of food allergy fatalities, restaurants have emerged as battlegrounds for those managing food allergies. Chefs must routinely navigate these food allergy minefields—and most kitchens are ill-equipped for the job.

We bend over backwards to make sure our food is safe. Bend over backwards because it’s life and death. – Ming Tsai, Head Chef, Blue Dragon

Surprisingly, no one really knows what’s going on. Doctors are still struggling with what seems to be a simple question: why the increase in food allergies? And why now?

According to Dr. Gupta, it’s likely a combination of genetics and our environment, with environmental factors triggering changes to the composition of our microbiome.

Getting your immune system to know this is ok, that in and of itself would be incredible. – Dr. Ruchi Gupta, Lurie Children’s Hospital

Some of the leading theories discussed in this segment, which we also discuss in an earlier post, include:

-       Microbiome changes: how antibiotic usage in infants and other environmental factors have affected our gut bacteria.

-       Clean state: the idea that the modern world is too clean and the lack of early exposure to dirt, bacteria, and animals weakens the immune system.

-       Early avoidance: for the past decade allergists have advised parents to avoid introducing allergenic foods early in life—it turns out early introduction may prevent the onset of food allergies.  

Much remains uncertain as to the reason for the rise in food allergies, and there is not yet a cure on the horizon. In the interim, management tools, standard precautionary measures (always carry epinephrine!), and treatment options like OIT can make living with food allergies a little easier.

We highly recommend carving out some time to watch this series—you won’t be disappointed.  Whether you have a food allergy, care for someone that does, or simply care about the food you eat—this series has something for everyone.

-       Meg and the Allergy Amulet Team

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Food Allergy Numbers: Why the Mystery?

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As someone who has a personal and professional connection to food allergies, I probably talk about the subject more than most. During these conversations, I’m often asked questions about food allergy science, management, and awareness. As a result, I’ve grown pretty proficient at fielding most food allergy questions thrown my way (at least I’d like to think so ☺). However, there’s one question that I dread answering since my response will almost surely disappoint. Here it is: How many people have food allergies?

The answer? It’s complicated. Not what you were hoping to hear, right? Read on, I promise to share some great food for thought on why this question has no easy answer!

First, let’s review some commonly referenced food allergy statistics:

-       As many as 15 million Americans have food allergies

-       Approximately 9 million adults have food allergies

-       Approximately 5.9 million children have food allergies (1 in 13, or 2 in every classroom)

-       Between 1997-2011, food allergy prevalence among children increased by 50%

-       Food-allergic children are 2-4 times more likely to have related conditions such as asthma (4x), atopic dermatitis (2.4x), and respiratory allergies (3.6x)

Now let’s dig a little deeper. A 2011 study published in Pediatrics found that the prevalence of allergy among food-allergic children was highest for peanut (25.2%), followed by milk (21.1%), and shellfish (17.2%). The results of a recent national survey of 53,000 families showed that peanut allergies in children have increased 21% since 2010, and that 45% of adults develop at least one allergy after age 17—which is surprising, considering food allergies are commonly thought to present themselves in childhood.

These stats all sound pretty solid, no? Well, they're not exactly. Here’s why.  

Numerous variables come into play when discussing prevalence statistics for food allergies, making firm figures difficult to come by. To name a few:

-       Old data. A lot of the figures referenced above are 5-10 years old. This past week, the New York Times published an article citing a wheat allergy statistic that is nearly a decade old (and this appears to be the most current figure!).

-       Self-reported data. Most food allergy research is collected through self-reported diagnosis (individuals are polled and asked to identify their food allergies). Some have been diagnosed by allergists, but others may have had one reaction their whole life and attribute that reaction to a specific food that they’ve avoided since (as one example). Many folks also mistake a food allergy with an intolerance, which can further muddy the data.

-       False positives. The best diagnostic technologies out there aren’t always 100% accurate, as we discuss in two earlier posts: Food Allergies Today: An Expert Q&A and More Tools, More Problems? Food Allergies Since 1960. False positives are frequent and regularly occur during allergy testing. For example, my daughter consistently tests moderately allergic to almonds and sesame with the ImmunoCAP test (a test that measures the body’s level of allergen-specific IgE antibodies), but she frequently eats both foods with no symptoms.

In short, it’s hard to pin down just how many Americans (and individuals worldwide) have a food allergy, making this question an especially tough one to answer! As we advance our understanding of food allergies, one can only hope that this knowledge helps us to better diagnose, manage, treat, and prevent.

In the meantime, continued research, emerging therapies like OIT, and technology will lead the charge and give hope to this growing population.

-       Meg and the Allergy Amulet Team 

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